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Other Specialist Chemicals


Liquid Chlorine

Chlorine is used in the organic chemical industry to manufacture a wide range of consumer products. In addition, it is used to synthesise a variety of intermediates that serve in many different industries.

One of the best-known applications of chlorine is water and swimming pool disinfection, keeping the water clean and sanitary.


Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas. Hydrochloric acid is produced in the United States primarily by four basic methods: the chlorination of organic chemicals; the combination of hydrogen and chlorine; the salt-sulfuric acid production process; and, as a co-product in the manufacture of silica. Most hydrochloric acid is produced from the chlorination of organic chemicals with much smaller amounts from the other processes.


Steel Pickling

Oil Well Acidizing
Production of Calcium Chloride
Ore Processing

Caustic Soda

Caustic soda is one of the common names for sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is also known as lye. Its common name derives from its chemical identity as a sodium hydrate and because it is caustic or corrosive. In pure form, caustic soda is a waxy, white solid. It readily absorbs water and forms aqueous solutions. Commercially available caustic soda or sodium hydroxide is usually sodium hydroxide monohydrate, NaOH·H2O.


Carbon Black

Carbon black is produced by the reaction of a hydrocarbon fuel such as oil or gas with a limited supply of combustion air at temperatures of 1320 to 1540°C (2400 to 2800°F). The unburned carbon is collected as an extremely fine black fluffy particle, 10 to 500 nanometers (nm) in diameter. The principal uses of carbon black are as a reinforcing agent in rubber compounds (especially tires) and as a black pigment in printing inks, surface coatings, paper, and plastics.

The most common use (70%) of carbon black is as a pigment and reinforcing phase in automobile tires. Carbon black also helps conduct heat away from the tread and belt area of the tire, reducing thermal damage and increasing tire life. About 20% of world production goes into belts, hoses, and other non-tire rubber goods.


Industrial Catalysts

Catalysts are substances that speed up reactions by providing an alternative pathway for the breaking and making of bonds. Key to this alternative pathway is a lower activation energy than that required for the un-catalyzed reaction. Catalysts are often specific for one particular reaction and this is particularly so for enzymes which catalyze biological reactions, for example in the fermentation of carbohydrates to produce biofuels.

Much fundamental and applied research is done by industrial companies and university research laboratories to find out how catalysts work and to improve their effectiveness. If catalytic activity can be improved, it may be possible to lower the temperature and/or the pressure at which the process operates and thus save fuel which is one of the major costs in a large-scale chemical process. Further, it may be possible to reduce the amount of reactants that are wasted forming unwanted by-products.

If the catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants, it is referred to as a homogeneous catalyst. A heterogeneous catalyst on the other hand is in a different phase to the reactants and products, and is often favored in industry, being easily separated from the products, although it is often less specific and allows side reactions to occur.


Bromine Group

Calcium Bromide

Calcium bromide solutions are used in the oil industry as auxiliaries for oil drillings. These solutions, which are pumped in the ground do not of course have to be as pure as those used for production of medicines, foodstuffs, air conditioners, etc.

Nevertheless, to satisfy market requirements regarding environmental protection and prevention of soil and water pollution, it is necessary to purify these solutions. It is important to note that we benefit twice from using byproducts. First because we save on production costs by using cheaper raw materials obtained from byproducts. Second, because we save on the treatment of acid solutions which, if not used, would be hazardous waste requiring neutralization.

For many years calcium bromide solutions have been prepared by an acid-base reaction between an aqueous solution of hydrogen bromide and solid calcium hydroxide, which is also called slaked lime.

Sodium Bromide

Sodium bromide (NaBr) is an inorganic compound. It is a high-melting white, crystalline solid that resembles sodium chloride. It is a widely used source of the bromide ion and has many applications. Sodium bromide is the most available alkali bromide and salt of hydrobromic acid. It is available in the form of crystals or powder. From aqueous solution sodium bromide crystallizes as a dihydrate and NaBr2.H2O at below 510C, while above it crystallizes as the anhydrous compound. NaBr crystallizes in the same cubic motif as NaCl, NaF and NaI. The anhydrous salt crystallizes above 50.70C. It is produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide.

Sodium bromide is the most useful inorganic bromide in industry.[7] It is also used as a catalyst in TEMPO-mediated oxidation reactions.


Sodium bromide is used in conjunction with chlorine as a disinfectant for hot tubs and swimming pools

Petroleum Industry:

Sodium bromide is used to prepare dense fluids used in oil wells.


Chemical Additives


The term “chemical additive” means a chemical product (including products of disassociation and degradation, collectively “products”) introduced into a waste stream that is used for cleaning, disinfecting, or maintenance and which may be detected in effluent discharged to waters of the Commonwealth. The term generally excludes chemicals used for neutralization of waste streams, the production of goods, and treatment of wastewater.

Chemicals used for maintenance of boilers and other equipment, e.g., prevention of corrosion, scaling, deposits, etc.
Chemicals used for cleaning and degreasing
Bitumen emulsion is a mixture of fine droplets of bitumen and water. But as the bitumen is a petroleum product it doesn’t mix with water and as it is sticky in nature, it doesn’t easily gets disintegrated into fine droplets. To overcome this problem an emulsifier is used.

Emulsifier can be defined as a surface-active agent. Emulsifier keeps the bitumen in its fine droplet state by disallowing it to mix with other droplets. As the droplets are very fine they suspend in water.

Bitumen emulsions can be divided into two classes, in volume terms, is by far the most important:

• Cationic emulsions;
• Anionic emulsions;

The terms cationic bitumen emulsion, anionic bitumen emulsion and nonionic bitumen emulsion refer to the overall particle charge on the bitumen droplet imparted by the emulsifier. If an electric charge is passed through an emulsion containing negatively charged particles of bitumen, the droplets will migrate to the anode; hence the emulsion is termed anionic. Conversely, positively charged particles will migrate to the cathode and these emulsions are known as cationic emulsions.


Polymer Modifiers

Synthetic polymers are produced in different types of reactions. Many simple hydrocarbons, such as ethylene and propylene, can be transformed into polymers by adding one monomer after another to the growing chain. Polyethylene, composed of repeating ethylene monomers, is an addition polymer. It may have as many as 10,000 monomers joined in long coiled chains. Polyethylene is crystalline, translucent, and thermoplastic—i.e., it softens when heated. It is used for coatings, packaging, molded parts, and the manufacture of bottles and containers. Polypropylene is also crystalline and thermoplastic but is harder than polyethylene. Its molecules may consist of from 50,000 to 200,000 monomers. This compound is used in the textile industry and to make molded objects.

Other addition polymers include polybutadiene, polyisoprene, and polychloroprene, which are all important in the manufacture of synthetic rubbers. Some polymers, such as polystyrene, are glassy and transparent at room temperature, as well as being thermoplastic. Polystyrene can be coloured any shade and is used in the manufacture of toys and other plastic objects.

Polymer Modified Bitumen

Pavements designed and constructed for heavy duty traffic and extreme weather conditions require specially designed and engineered bitumen grades. By enhancing the characteristics of normal bitumen with the addition of a polymer we succeed to obtain modified bitumen that allows the mixture to be more cohesive, with much more strength and significant higher resistance to parameters like fatigue and permanent deformations for road pavements.

PMBs have been successfully used for several decades in the road industry.

PMB’s Qualities

Greater rigidity
Better resistance to permanent deformation
Higher resistance to crack propagation
Better water resistance
Much higher durability

Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) describes a family of synthetic rubber derived from styrene and butadiene. SBS is a thermo plastic elastomer that has an excellent abrasion resistance and aging stability when blended with bitumen, making it the perfect bitumen modifier to achieve cold flexibility and elastic properties. This material has the ability to retain its shape after being stretched and therefore, is widely used in modified bitumen roofing, coatings, sealants and paving amongst other applications.

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